Annotated Repertoire from "Pulling it All Together", a presentation for WMTA

Pieces to help teach phrase identification

"The Highlands of Scotland" from Echoes of Scotland by Mary Leaf
I like to use this piece to talk about phrases because for a beginning student, the four phrases are very clear. Each is four measures in length. We begin by looking for parts which are the same - phrase 1 and phrase 3 are identical, phrases 2 and 4 are almost identical. So, we look closer at phrases 2 and 4. Which phrase sounds like it ends on our "home" key? Most of the time students will naturally make the last note of phrases 1 and 2 less to shape a beautiful ending to the phrase, if they do not, then we are able to discuss how the last note will be less to better communicate the sound of the text when we sing it. If we want to get more sophisticated, I can have students listen to the harmonies in the teacher duet and pick which harmony they want to have be the loudest or most intense measure of the phrase. I love how I can do so much shaping and make such a beautiful melody with this piece without having to do complex note reading. This is what we need to be doing as teachers - work on listening skills to hear phrase shaping from early lessons!

"In the Meadow" from Kaleidoscope Solos book 1 by Jon George
(This piece can also be an opportunity for a student to practice identifying intervals.)
This is another piece with clear four measure phrases, 1 and 3 are identical, 2 and 4 only have the last note different. For phrases 2 and 4 we listen for which phrase sound like more of an arrival at home. If the student already knows 5 note scales we can identify the scale of the piece. I love how the melody "zig-zags". Students and I will "draw" the melody in the air. For example, the first phrase would go up, then down, then up and then slightly down. (Maybe this meadow is not a flat one and has a lot of hills to roll up and down.) Our goal with drawing in the air is to feel how the melody moves forward, it will be the most expressive if we feel the energy it takes to do the zig-zags and create a connected line of pitches. I feel moving our bodies to the direction changes helps eventually develop skills of "conducting" which students will eventually need to help with shaping more advanced repertoire.

Spaceship to Mars by Carol Matz
For this piece I want to look at the B section, which we can also identify as a whole tone scale. We can talk about what is the effect of a whole tone scale and why do we think the composer decided to use it. The notes are slurred into three note groups, but by looking at the direction of the notes we can organize them into four groups of two measures. The first three groups have six pitches, the last group ends with the dotted half note. Students and I discuss the repetition - measures 17 and 18 are the same as 19 and 20, whenever we repeat something, we have to do something with our dynamics (the composer writes a crescendo, but we would do it anyway). Then in measures 21 and 22 the pitches start higher, so we REALLY have to do something! In measure 23 we begin the pattern considerably higher and then to finish the section we end with a half step instead of a whole step, a pretty big deal which leads us back to the A section. When we look at how those six notes and eventually the last 4 notes of the section relate to each other, we see how we can shape the music to create longer phrases (we don't need to wait until the student is playing Brahms). All this coincides with the imagery of flying the ship out into outer space! For the A section we can compare the first and third phrases - what it the difference and how does the sound/effect change because of that difference.

"Freddie the Frog" from Freddie the Frog by Anne Crosby
When I teach this piece, I have students study and practice the melody first. We probably will leave out the right hand in measures 1,2,4,9,10,12,14,16,19 for a few days of practicing until the shaping of the melody is very much in the student's ear. I believe when we do hands separate practicing it should not be with the intent to "learn the notes", but instead it is to listen better to how the individual lines are meant to be shaped. If we allow our ears to get used to hearing a line or melody without shape, then our ear learns it is acceptable to play without shaping a line. It is not, we should strive to play every note and thus every line with some kind of shape. We can always change our minds about what shape we want, but NO shape is not an option. This is another piece I often have students "draw" or conduct the melody in the air to help feel the motion of the melody.
We look at the patterns in the phrases. Phrases 1 and 3 have two parts - 2 descending lines. The last two lines could be considered as one long phrase (8 measures) or two 4 measure phrases (students could choose which they prefer). The second phrase I find is often the most difficult simply because it doesn't have the same motion of the other phrases. So, it helps to do some interval analysis (moving into the next theoretical concept) of seeing the thirds from G to E to C to A (maybe be a frog skipping over the keys?)

Pieces to help teach intervals

"Thirteen Robots" by Keven Olson from In Recital with Little Pieces for Little Fingers Original Solos, Book 1
This piece uses 2nds, 3rds, 4ths and 5ths both harmonic and melodic and moves the intervals into different fingers. For example, the 4th is sometimes with fingers 2 and 5, sometimes with 1 and 4. This way students don't get used to a 4th always using their 4 finger. The steady quarter notes help give the piece a "mechanical" sound. (This piece can also use the concepts of the previous section with using the patterns to help decide shaping of the phrases.)

"Grasshopper Parade" from Scenes from my Window by Claudette Hudelson
This selection uses 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths within one hand and if you look in measures 13 and 14 there is a 6th and a 9th between the two hands. For this piece, I like to have students really listen to which intervals are more consonant and which are more dissonant. We will use what they hear to help shape the phrases, getting louder or softer, whichever the student prefers as the intervals change.

"Zimbabwe" from Four Miniature Suites by Valerie Roth Roubos
This piece uses 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths both harmonically and melodically. I like to have students listen and shape the interval changes which happen in measure 3 and 11 (and similar places).

"A Flowing Stream" from Be a Star, book 1 by Keven Costley
This piece is one of many in the book series which focuses on intervallic note reading. This piece could also be used for chord identification. I appreciate how the composer writes in repetitions to help students really learn to feel the interval patterns. Students encounter 2nds, 3rds and 5ths both melodically and harmonically. A student playing this piece should be getting more fluent with intervals, but this piece has enough slight variances in the patterns that students need to be careful.

Pieces to help teach ABA form

"Ninja Power" from Black Key Blast! by Wendy Stevens
This piece is in ABA form with a coda. I have my students begin by looking at the melodic patterns, then we can identify the A section as two parallel phrases, the second phrase more final because of the length of the last note. Then the student has to tell me what is different about the next section. All quarter notes instead of a mix of quarters and halves. More of a zig zag melody instead of a leap followed by a descending melody. The whole point at this level is to see that there are two sections which are contrasting. Then we talk about what the ninja might be doing in the A section versus the B section. Maybe tiptoing around and sneaking up on someone? Then, when we play we try different articulations to find what the student feels is the best for creating the character (or ninja moves) which they have decided best fit.

Walter the Snake by Lori Bastien
This piece is ABA with an introduction and a coda. For the A section, I would have students look at the melodic direction - zig zag around a half step. We would compare this to the B section which is ascending by 2nds. Within the B section we can compare the two phrases and identify the first as being major and the second as minor.  We can discuss how the different melodic shape creates a different character or effect. To me, the A melody feels like descriptive or declamatory music (also see the text). The B section feels like it is anticipating something and building more excitement. In measure 19 we can listen to how the gradually increasing intervals (Major 2nd, minor 3rd, Major 3rd) build to an arrival on the downbeat of measure 20. This would be why the composer writes in a ritardando - to help us listen to the intervals.

Petite Waltz by Carolyn Setliff
This piece has a more extended form - A, A prime, B, A second. One of the first things students and I would do after identifying the different sections is to discuss what makes each of the sections different and how that effects the sound. This would mean we really look at the last two measures of each A sections. For example, measure 7 is a d minor chord moving to G. Measure 15 is an f-sharp diminished moving to G. Measure 43 should be similar to these two, but instead the composer extends the pattern by continuing the left hand line to an A-flat which then takes us to an a minor chord moving to G. We would play all three of these A section endings and listen for how each is different. The first two are with a piano dynamic, the last is mezzo piano. But, within the composer's parameters, the performer can make sure that each of these cadences have a different sound and we can try out different choices - do we make the final Gs more or less, do we take a bit of time? When we look at the B section we compare the A and the B sections. What is different - melody in LH versus RH, ascending versus descending, G Major instead of C - and how does this change the sound or character. Would we possibly experiment with some articulation changes to help show the character change?

Pieces to help teach scales

I like students to really listen for what they hear in the difference between major and minor qualities. I really try not to put words into their mouth (happy vs. sad), but let them think about the difference. If students are having a difficulty verbalizing, I might have them tell me what might be happening in a story or movie if they hear that sound. We also experiment with how the sound will change depending on the register of the instrument or the dynamic level. Eventually, we can even experiment with the voicing of the chord creating a different effect. For example, a c minor chord played low on the piano will have a different effect than the same harmony played high.

"Beverly Butterfly" from Look Who's Visiting in My Garden by John Robert Poe
This piece uses the scale of B-flat Major and has outlines of both F7 and C chords (so we could explore subtle dynamic changes for harmony changes). I really like to have students learn five-finger scales really early on in their piano study, so it is lots of fun when we can have pieces which use those scales. This book has a number of pieces uses a variety of scales. Even though the hand position is not what would be considered a B-flat Major hand position, students can still figure out the key. We listen to the piece for what pitch sound like "home". Once we decide on B-flat we can compare it to the five finger scale which they know and yes, it does use the same pitches. Then, we can notice that measure 7 does NOT follow the notes in the scale because of the E natural, that means this is a place in the piece we will want to do something with our dynamics to help the audience hear that something interesting is happening.  I also like pieces like this because we can work on identifying the scale or key of the piece without having to talk about key signatures. I think too often we think of key signatures as being PRESCRIPTIVE of the scale of a piece rather than being DESCRIPTIVE of the scale.

"Paper Airplanes" from Happy Times by Elvina Pearce
In this piece students can identify three different five finger scales - C, b-flat and D-flat. Elvina only gives four different dynamic directions, but because she changes the harmony more than that we can explore doing subtle dynamic changes for all harmonic changes. I really want to stress that I want my STUDENTS to come up with any dynamic shaping, I do not prescribe the changes. We will usually try a couple of options together in the lesson, but then I send students home to try many more options at home. Sometimes what I hear the next week is a bit bizarre, but it is what the STUDENT has decided on. That, to me, is the most important aspect - that the STUDENT is making choices. My job as a teacher is then to simply communicate to the student if their choices are coming across clearly to me, the audience.

"Midnight Chase" from Splattered with Fun by Glenda Austin
All the pieces in this collection are in a different key, so the whole volume is very helpful for helping students with relating scales to actual pieces. I like this piece because it uses both the f minor scale as well as the chromatic scale. (It also even uses secondary dominant in measure 7.) So, we can discuss the different effects of the two scales and how we might shape those differently.

Pieces for teaching chord identification and functional harmony

"For My Own Amazement" from Merry and Mellow by Paul Sheftel
I love using this piece with students who need some reinforcement on chord inversions. Sheftel has also given us a gift of few dynamic markings so that students can use their ears to listen to the color changes which happen with each new harmony and determine how they will change their dynamics with each change. In addition to exploring those color changes, students and I will practice just blocking out the chords without the inversions so that we can listen to the overall arc of the piece. Then, when we add all the inversions back in, we try to make sure that overall arc still happens.

Witches' Brew by Catherine Rollin
This piece has only a few chords - d, B-flat, B-flat German 6th and A, so it is excellent for working on identification. I have students just practice the RH chord changes, not just to feel the finger changes, but to also HEAR the difference. We especially do this with the German 6th chord and the B-flat Major chord. I ask students to listen the sound difference between the two chords and then experiment with different ideas for shaping. For example, in the first two measures we have the d minor leading to the German 6th then in the next two measures the d minor leads to the B-flat Major. How are these going to be different? Is one going to have more of a crescendo than the other or are we going to voice the top note of the chord more? In measures 17-24 we have the pattern four times, how are we going to shape each of those two measures differently and how are we going to relate them so we end up with an 8 measure phrase?

Pumpkin Dance by Timothy Brown
This piece uses c, G7 and another augmented 6th chord - the French 6th built on A-flat. Both this and the previous piece had augmented 6th chords. I definitely think that when we encounter these in elementary and intermediate repertoire that we need to identify them and give them a correct label. Especially in this case when the harmonic progression follows the prescribed resolution of the augmented 6th going to the dominant. Usually by the time a student is playing this piece we have already encountered dominant 7th chords. So, ideally the student will be able to recognize a chord which has the same intervallic spacing as a V7 when we look at the keys, but we can recognize that the 7th of the chord is "incorrectly" spelled as a 6th instead of a 7th. That leads us to identifying a German or Italian 6th chord and then we can move on to identifying the French 6th. In the previous piece, the German 6th did not resolve to the dominant. In this piece it does, so we are able to also talk about the function of the augmented 6th chord.

"Easter Eggs" from All Year Round by Linda Niamath
This piece uses broken chords - E-flat, f and B-flat. The last line is an elongated cadence. I love it how the composer has chosen to not include dynamic markings in this cadence so students can feel the freedom to experiment with different options. What do they like the best - the ii chord the strongest or the V or the I? They can do this all within the mp parameter given by the composer, but the cadence will be most satisfying when the performer does something to indicate that they truly are helping their audience listen to the chord progression.

"Tension" from Musical Scenes, book 1 by Joyce Grill
I don't necessary like the title of this piece, since I really don't want my students to ever think "tension" when they play the piano. But, I understand the intent of the title - to remind us of the MUSICAL tension of a dominant function chord resolving. I appreciate how the composer has given us the whole first page with almost no dynamic markings so that students can really explore showing the harmonic changes. Please note, I am not meaning for these dynamics to be huge, but subtly leaning into a certain harmony and relaxing another harmony. In measure 17, I like for students to think about WHY the composer has marked this measure with p. Hopefully, we will eventually come up with the answer that it is because of the change to C7, which is really a huge shift from the primary chords of e minor.

"Tango Espanol" from Piano Solos in Lyrical Style by Carolyn Miller
I have had some students play this piece and without much prompting end up with a wonderfully expressive performance. Others have to work through the piece more in order to hear all the beautiful non-chord tones. We usually start by identifying the chords, which means we focus on the left hand. After a student has done their analysis (could be done with or without me based on the student's analytical ability), they should be able to tell me that there are three harmonies - d minor (tonic), g minor (sub dominant) and A Major (dominant). What I then like them to do is spend time practicing only the left hand. In order to help hear the function of each of those harmonies we might need to overemphasize them a bit in practice. For example, we might need to practice the dominant always being louder and then less on the tonic. I am not saying that this would necessarily be how we will eventually perform the piece, but it might be a practice tool to help actually feel the resolution of the harmonies. The goal is to feel that every time we return to the d minor harmony, we have returned "home". Ideally, with only this left hand practice, we will achieve a left hand part which already shows the expressive quality of the tango even without a melody.
For the right hand, I have students circle all the non-chord tones in the melody. Then we experiment with the many different options of leaning into the non-chord tones or pulling away from the non-chord tones, changing the articulation in some of the phrases, the options are endless. But, we make decisions based on whether or not the melody notes are in the chord or not. Then, to help hear the harmonic outline of the melody better, we play the melody plus the bass note. Not all the left hand notes, only the lowest note of the left hand pattern. At this point and in all the previous points in the learning process of this piece, our focus has been on making each note show the direction of the phrases and the harmonic outlines. We have never done practicing to "just learn the notes". Every note played we listen for if we are creating a phrase or showing a new color.
Eventually, once I am convinced that the student has an aural "image" in place, I allow them to add all the left hand notes. If we have done the careful listening throughout the process, we hopefully will avoid ever playing the piece without being expressive.

Accompanying hymns in worship part 1: tempo and meter

I get to play for my church's worship services about once a month. (I attend Faith Lutheran in Sussex, Wisconsin) We are blessed to have a number of us who are capable of playing for services so no one is obligated to play for every weekend's services. My favorite part of the service is accompanying the hymn singing. For the most part, our congregation is boisterous in its singing and responds well to variety in playing. I absolutely love it that my church has made an effort to use hymns which have been composed over many centuries of Christianity. Yes, Christian hymns are mostly from the Western music traditions, but that is due to the evolution of music in Western civilization as well as Christianity being predominantly in Europe. I look forward to seeing what hymns become composed in the future which include musical traditions of other cultures as the Gospel spreads and inspires poets and composers from other backgrounds.

When preparing for a service, I always start with the hymns, these are the most important musical parts of the service (this includes any liturgical responses and canticles). I like to first simply read through each of the hymns doing an analysis of the poetry, hymn tune and the tune setting. What I hope for with each hymn is good prosody and opportunities to highlight important concepts in the text. I make sure to look at all the verses we will be singing because there will be differences.

(Prosody is the word singers use to refer to how text and music match. For example, Brahms had a habit of placing unaccented syllables on accented beats or higher pitches resulting in awkward prosody. Schubert in contrast will more likely have a tune which will flow with the text - good prosody. I love both composers' songs, but this is just how we analyze and recognize differences between composers.)

Choosing a tempo for playing the hymns can aid in a congregation learning to love a hymn or deciding to avoid it altogether. Our goal should be to find a tempo which helps the congregation emotionally connect to the thoughts and teachings the hymn writer communicates. Creating an environment of thoughtful and emotional congregational singing develops a connection to our brothers and sisters who have sung the hymns centuries before us as well as joins us with our brothers and sisters singing in the pews next to us. This unity is an amazing blessing and is why I so strongly believe in congregational singing.

Here is my process in finding my ideal tempi for singing hymns:

First, I look for the general character of the hymn and if any verses change character. A hymn might be declarative - simply stating facts, penitential - confessing sinfulness, joyful and praising, thankful or reflective.

Next, I will simply speak through the text. While speaking, I try to keep in mind the overall character, paying attention to how I would speak the words in the character of the hymn. So, if the character is penitential I will speak slower than if I were speaking in a joyful character. I will also pay attention to how the character will affect the enunciation of vowels and consonants. If you are at all confused to how these different characters can come across in speech, just sit and listen to conversations sometime. As a speaker gets excited, the rate of speech will be quicker and usually have more clipped consonants. These occurrences in speech are what I am trying to capture when I am speaking through the text. When speaking, I will also try to feel the pattern of accented and unaccented syllables. This will especially be important in some of our hymns which appear to be unmetered.

(As an aside: many of the hymns we sing are translations. All the aspects of hymns I look for in the above process really show the incredible gift these translators had to be able to translate a hymn and use words which show the character and rhythm which match the music. This would be why we usually do not use word by word translations of hymns, they simply do not create hymns which come alive when sung by a congregation.)

So, I have spoken through the text but have yet to play the music. I like to start with the melody first and I first try to sing it a capella. My reasoning for this is that I want to find a tempo which is determined by the text rather than the ability of my fingers. I will often try to move - walking, swinging arms, bouncing - as I sing the melody. There are a surprising number of our hymns which are actually tunes from folk dances or use dance rhythms. Chorale type setting will sometimes hide these dances so taking out everything except the melody will help bring any dance qualities the hymn might have to the forefront.

At this point I have finally (hopefully) decided on my tempo for the hymn. I will also determine what kind of metric flow I want for the music. For example, if a piece is in 3/4 meter usually I will decide to feel one big pulse on the downbeat with beats two and three moving towards the downbeat. This part of the process is especially important in the unmetered tunes. These unmetered tunes come from a tradition of madrigal singing which is rich with hemiola effects. They might have a feeling of two beats together, then three beats. Speaking the text and attempting to dance the melody will help make this type of meter clearer. What I want to avoid is feeling all beats of the measure as equal. All beats are never equal, some are down beats, some move forward, no beat is ever static.

Now that I have the feeling of the motion of the hymn, my goal is to play the music in a way to highlight these qualities, making sure whatever accompaniment I play supports the text. This means the a chorale setting in whatever hymnal am using might not be appropriate. It might mean the harmonic rhythm of the setting is too quick and I need to play a simpler accompaniment. The most important task I have is to communicate the hymn's character to the congregation even if it means I only play the melodic line.

How about I walk through this process using a hymn.

Let's look at a Luther hymn which I think is underused. In our hymnal (Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal published by Northwestern Publishing House) it is #271, We All Believe in One True God to the tune of "Wir glauben all an einen Gott". (The setting I have linked to IS different than the one in Christian Worship, but the link will at least give you an idea.)

Since this is a creed hymn, it is simply declarative, so I like to think we would declare the text is as straightforward as possible, attempting to match the pace of speaking the words.

Here is a recording of me reading through the first verse: verse 1 of We all Believe in One True God
We all believe in one true God,
Who created earth and heaven,
The Father, who to us in love
Has the right of children given.
He in soul and body feeds us;
All we need his hand provides us.
He through snares and perils leads us,
Watching that no harm betides us.
He cares for us by day and night;
All things are governed by his might.

Since this hymn has a few melismas, I feel it is best to look for the simplest phrases to determine my tempo from speech. That would be the fifth and sixth phrases - He in soul and body feeds us; All we need his hand provides us. 

The rhythm of the text does not exactly match the rhythm of the melody in that in speech "feeds us" and "provides us" would probably be notated as eighth notes through both phrases rather than ending with two quarters, but even so, this would be a great place to find our pulse. After speaking and finding my place, I pull out my metronome and figure out my pulse. (I use a free metronome app on my phone which lets me tap my pulse and then it shows me the tempo of my pulse. The app is called Pro Metronome.)  My speech tempo for this piece is roughly 83 to the quarter note pulse.

Now, I will practice speaking the text at 83 in the actual written rhythm to see if my thoughts on the tempo might change. For the most part, I like how it fits together at that tempo.

Next, since this is an unmetered hymn I will speak the text at my tempo and try to figure out my stressed syllables. Here is what I end up with (mainly a trochaic tetrameter):
WHO creAted EARTH and HEAven,
the FAther, WHO to US in LOVE
HAS the RIGHT of CHILdren GIven.
HE in SOUL and BOdy FEEDS us;
ALL we NEED his HAND proVIDES us.
HE through SNARES and PErils LEADS us,
WATching THAT no HARM be TIDES us.
ALL things are GOverned BY his MIGHT.

Time for singing! Now I will try to sing the text, usually a capella, really trying to focus on feeling the stresses of the poetry in the text. Almost a capella We all Believe (I was not brave enough to record myself completely a capella it would take me a while to practice to the point of comfort, so the recording is singing with light piano support.) If you are looking at some versions of this hymn which have the music written in half notes or even longer note values, here is a quick history lesson. When music notation began, it was written predominantly in whole notes, for examples of this look at manuscript or early printings of music by Monteverdi. This practice eventually evolved into the notation system we have today, but at times hymn notation did not evolve enough and we end up using some copies which still use the longer note values resulting in a miscommunication of actual tempi to modern musicians. This hymn tune is from the 14th century, if you need convincing about my tempo choice, go spend some time at a Renaissance Festival and/or listen to Renaissance madrigals. (I had the wonderful opportunity in undergrad -University of Central Missouri- to sing in the madrigal choir and I absolutely LOVED it. We spent the entire fall semester singing only Renaissance music, performed at the Kansas City Ren Fest and put on a madrigal dinner for the holidays. We eventually had the opportunity to sing Palestrina in the Sistine Chapel, it was incredible. This music is expressive and beautiful and is all over the place in our hymnals and we need to bring these hymns to life by singing them like madrigals.)

Hopefully you are now convinced of my tempo choice for the hymn and in case you did not like this hymn, maybe are starting to consider it actually could be a great addition to your congregation's repertoire. Now, we need to be able to play it in a way that lets the congregation confidently and robustly sing the hymn. In order to do this, I prefer to play a setting which focuses on the melody and the pulse, so I need to play WAY fewer notes than are notated in the hymnal setting. I go back to thinking about madrigal music. Prevalent instruments at the time were NOT keyboard instruments. We are instead thinking lutes, recorders, drums. So, I will play the melody, attempting to have a light sound similar to a recorder, always leaning into accented syllables. I might actually ONLY play the melody to accompany the congregation so that our tempo does not get bogged down. If I do this, I will usually play the melody in octaves - right hand at the written octave, left hand an octave lower. This will help the men sing better to have it played in their octave. Melody in octaves  If I want top get more adventurous and play more, I need to keep in mind my goal of still feeling the dance of the melody so if I add any notes to my accompaniment it must still have a feeling of lightness. If I add anything, it will be just a simple bass note (trying to imitate a drum which would be pulsing on the strong syllables. It would possibly sound like this Melody plus simple bass line. For any music theorists - my bass line does not follow rules of counterpoint. But, it does not need to because the tune predates the rules of counterpoint and I am not trying to create a singable bass line, I am attempting to create a sound of a drum. Also, this hymn is an example of use of the Dorian mode, which would have a different type of harmonization than major and minor which became prevalent in the latter part of the Baroque period. In an ideal world, I would not actually even play this hymn on the piano, I would sit back and watch a flute, a drum, maybe a tambourine and a guitar attempt to recreate the sounds of lute, recorder and drums.

I know this post is getting long, but I want to look at one more hymn, a Lenten one since we are finishing up that season. This one is #127 in Christian Worship: Stricken, Smitten, and Afflicted with the tune O mein Jesu, ich muss sterben.

Step 1: character is a reflective declarative 
Step 3. find a pulse based on my speaking. This is a bit awkward to find a metronome marking because our poetic "pulse" is on beats 1 and 3 of the written meter. Which is what is going to bring this poetry to life and give us our feeling of the meter. To me, it feels like we REALLY need to lean in to what will end up being the first beat of every measure. This will result in a meter which only has one beat per measure, so we will need to back off considerable on the last two pulses in the measure to make the poetry flow.
Step 4: Sing a capella
Step 5: Attempt to play in the same tempo as feels natural a capella

I could do this process with a few more hymns and tunes for you, if you would like me to do that, please just leave a comment and I will go through the process with another hymn (or a few more). But, hopefully working through this these two hymns gives you ideas on how to approach hymn preparation which will inspire your congregation to actually sing along and encourage you to explore possibilities of hymns you possibly have not used before. Bringing hymns to life is mostly dependent upon finding a tempo and a meter which allows the congregation to easily sing the text. We can do that without needing to play a lot of notes or find fancy accompaniments. 

Part 2 of my thoughts on playing the hymns will focus on shaping the phrases of the hymns. This will included pacing the breathing, working with commas and periods, etc. So, keep watching for that post!

What is fluency?

I believe there are many aspects to consider with this question, but the idea of fluency and what is necessary to acquire fluency and how fluency is exemplified in the student could probably be a discussion topic taking hours at any music teacher gathering. (So, if anyone reads and has thoughts, PLEASE feel free to share comments here on the blog so we can possibly get a discussion going!) I was forced to consider my definition of fluency when I was studying Italian and my definition has continued to develop ever since. My second semester of Italian was with a very inexperienced graduate student who was a native Italian speaker. We had a very small class, which should have meant we had the luxury of excessive amounts of practice time of all concepts. Instead, I remember how we would discuss a concept, maybe do 5-6 sentences using the concept and then our teacher would declare it was perfetto and we would be done. I was incredibly frustrated and I used my frustration to analyze my own teaching and how I prepared my students for their at home practice. In contrast, my next Italian teacher patiently made us practice all concepts ad naseum - going back all the way to first semester concepts. I still am no where near fluent in Italian, but it was much more likely to happen with the teacher spiraling through old concepts and practicing until verb conjugations flowed naturally with little to almost no thought needed.

So, how does fluency in a language relate to musical fluency? Some aspects are identical, music is a language. But, music is also a physical activity so we need to practice like it's a sport. And then there is an additional aural component requiring us to listen to subtleties and react immediately, making changes as a reflex reaction since we do not necessarily have time to complete a thought before the moment passes. All these components make musical fluency difficult to define as well as to achieve.

I guess I could give some examples of what I have seen from students which I would say are NOT exhibiting fluency.
Student has many stumbles throughout their piece of music.
Student has many fingering errors in a scale.
Student can play an entire Bach Invention from beginning to end almost perfectly but cannot start anywhere in the middle of the piece.
Student plays a piece multiple times exactly the same way and when asked to make changes to phrase shaping or rhythmic flow everything falls apart.

To complicate matters more, I think we CAN achieve fluency at different levels. Take for example a student who has been taking lessons for roughly two years who can play all major and minor pentascales without prompting; can read accurately and independently pieces with no hand shifts; and can play (after practicing) a piece with a few hand shifts and can verbally discuss the intervals used, phrase patterns and character of the piece. This is a different level of fluency than I expect from a student who has studied their instrument for ten years. But, I think it is imperative (a "moral imperative", to borrow a quote from the movie Real Genius) that we as teachers make sure we have the goal to build a level of fluency in each of our students no matter what the difficulty level of their pieces might be.

So, how to do this... I definitely do not have all the answers, but for now I will oversimplify for the sake of discussion. I like to think that we have two major skills to develop when creating each student's plan for musical growth. One is physical skill, the other is cognitive. Each student (and teacher) will probably have a greater aptitude for one or the other. Our job as teachers is to make sure both sides are carefully developed. This often requires self-analysis as a teacher because we probably teach one more naturally than the other.

First, the physical aspect. I think we underestimate the number of repetitions we need to reach physical fluency. Most students definitely underestimate. So, we need too make sure to give very specific assignments from the very beginning in order to aid them in learning this skill. I will often give assignments to practice a 1-2 measure spot in a piece a minimum of 10 times a day. I work with many parents who have not ever played a musical instrument so I also make sure they are aware that they should be hearing some repetitive practicing.  I often use an example of my brother who spent one winter preparing himself to be a switch hitter for baseball. He diligently did 100 swings left handed every day so the motion became natural. This is when we also discuss how physical fluency is built over time. Please note, it is really important that we do these repetitions in the lessons to make sure they are learning the correct motions so they are not learning and then repeating an unhealthy motion.  I remember having an assignment to drill the opening thirds of Beethoven op. 2 #3 for 10 minutes every day for 30 days. My teacher (Dr. Mia Hynes) worked with me to make sure my drilling was done with a relaxed hand/wrist. She made sure I was drilling with comfortable fingerings. This was when I was an undergrad that she had so much care for my physical approach to the technical issue. It is even more critical that we have that care for pre-college students - many of them will not continue study at the collegiate level to "fix" technical problems. 

 Here is what I suggest for helping build this physical fluency:
1. Establish a scale/arpeggio regimen which gradually increases awareness of fingerings and fluency of scale patterns. Make sure to practice these with the students so you can watch for tight wrists, over curving of fingers, raised shoulders, etc. Focus should always be on learning body awareness before practicing for velocity.
2. Select pieces which do not overwhelm students with too many technical problems in one piece. From the very beginning stages of learning the piece, practice the technical issues together and discuss the practice plan for these passages. 
3. Be very specific in your practice instructions and do all the practice steps together in the lesson. I write in assignment books exactly what I want - 5 times in a row with correct fingering, for example or exact metronome setting for slow practice. I make sure we practice the exact gesture we want to have happen.
4. Once a piece is learned, make sure you have a plan with the student for maintaining the physical fluency. For example, slow practice every other day or spot practice or drilling passagework.

Now, what I think is the second aspect of fluency - cognitive awareness. In many ways I think this can be more difficult to teach because it is built over years with a student. I get many transfer students who physically can play very difficult pieces but are unable to identify intervals and phrases. In many ways even though they have a technical agility, I would consider them to be less fluent at the piano than a student playing less difficult pieces who can discuss musical form, keys, chords, etc. This cognitive awareness will also aid the student in making intelligent choices with regards to characters, dynamics, tempi, fingerings, etc. 

I have to admit now that there is no way I can outline all the ways to create cognitively engaged playing or even one complete way in one blog post. It takes time. It takes thoughtful planning. But it IS our job as educators to do this from the very beginning of musical study. Here are some ideas which I try to use with all my students.

1. Analyze every piece of music. This should start at the very beginning. Ask questions like "what notes are we using?" (both pitch patterns and rhythm patterns are relevant) or "in what direction are the notes headed?" or "what intervals are we using?". If we start looking for patterns or not patterns from the beginning it will not be a new concept when we start analyzing Sonatinas.
2. Ask why. "Why did the composer repeat this motive?" "Why do you want to get louder here?"
3. Explore pieces of different difficulty levels. When a student is learning to read a language, they will not read only books or reading examples of equivalent difficulty. The teacher will mix it up. My first grade daughter has easy reading books from school to work on phonetics, spelling and parts of speech. She has chapter books she reads on her own for the story content. She has the more difficult books which she and her dad read together which aids in vocabulary expansion. All these together build a fluency of reading which does not come by reading only one difficulty level. We should model our music learning on this. We should have some pieces students can play almost immediately, some pieces taking a couple weeks and some longer term projects.
4. Explore pieces in many different styles. This is not about learning different styles to motivate students. This is about developing students who will be aware of the sound differences between Telemann and Bartok and how to make those differences. And not just between composers, but also creating music which is colorful and has compelling ideas which are unique to each student. This comes from students being introduced to many different sounds.
5. Have students learn to make their own choices. It is very tempting as teachers to use the editions with lots of fingerings and helpful markings. Or to write in fingerings or dictate dynamics for students. Although it might save some time in the short term, it does not develop a student who studies the harmonies in order to find the climax of the piece. I inwardly cringe when in January my daughter wears a pink shirt with a red skirt and orange Halloween socks, but I have to step back and let her explore her own style of fashion. We need to do the same thing in some aspects of teaching. Some, not all. My daughter is not allowed to wear her sparkly dress shoes with the outfit above because they are impractical for school. So, we allow choices within set parameters, using those parameters to develop taste and eventually an appropriate sense of style. It takes time. 

More than likely this post did not give you any immediate tips to integrate into your teaching. Being a more philosophical post, I did not intend it to. But hopefully it might be a catalyst for thought. Fluency should always be our goal. Please share any thoughts or teaching ideas or teacher struggles as a comment below, other readers might find it helpful. All my posts are exploring facets of this goal of musical fluency, so keep reading my posts to get practical ideas as well as my philosophical background.

Why teach pre-reading repertoire

My teaching has evolved. Hopefully it will continue to do so as I make more discoveries and have more experiences with students. One of my goals used to be to get students to reading lines and spaces as soon as possible. That goal has changed drastically. Not to the point that I teach everything by rote, but I have learned to slow down the reading process through an exploration of pre-reading pieces. Usually I do this for the entire first year of piano study, sometimes longer. Before describing the repertoire I use I want to explain my thought process on why I have come to spend so much time with pre-reading repertoire.

First of all, our students come to us because they want to play music. But, sometimes as teachers we instead give lectures on technique and give lengthy theory assignments. I am not saying either of these are bad, but when that new student is excited to learn to play, we need to make sure that enthusiasm continues and give them something to play. Our long term goal is that music is always the motivator for music study, not trophies and stickers. So we need to make sure music making is present from the very beginning. (That said, I have used stickers, trophies, dressing up, candy, etc. as extrinsic motivators.) Pre-reading pieces and student compositions in pre-reading notation allow us to teach tuneful and memorable pieces to our students much sooner.

Pre-reading lets us focus on technical aspects of playing without needing to focus on reading lines and spaces. No reading method is perfect, but one of my biggest issues with the Middle C approach is that both thumbs are on Middle C, which is really awkward for both the 1 fingers and the wrists. Other methods delay using all 5 fingers. With pre-reading supplemental materials I can pick pieces to help students build a solid technical foundation no matter what method I use.

Pre-reading pieces can often explore and introduce students to different tonalities. Many of the reading approaches limit student to only hearing pieces in major tonalities. With pre-reading we usually learn melodies based on pentatonic and minor scales and experience tone clusters. What a great way to make sure our students hear pieces which are not always major!

Pre-reading is often easier for students to sing. I make my students sing a lot. Singing leads to natural phrase shaping, develops interval awareness and simply makes better musicians. Pieces centered around Middle C might be easier to read on the staff, but young students will not be able to sing notes below Middle C and should not be asked to. Singing teachers will actually tell you that young singers should sing tunes which use the F above Middle C and higher. (Yes, this means that you as a teacher should be using that same range and singing in your head voice, not singing with your speaking voice.) I know that as a teacher I cannot totally avoid ever going below that F, but pre-reading notation allows me to have musical experiences in the student's optimal singing range.

Pre-reading reinforces rhythm reading without lines and spaces. When we play, we are processing many different pieces of information. We have finger numbers, piano keys, rhythm, pulse, shaping, notation. Anytime we can remove one item it allows us to use more brain capacity for something else. This is why we so often tap out a rhythm before actually playing or why we will use syllabic counting instead of metric. If I can remove reading on the staff it is much easier for me to help a student develop a sense of pulse and concentrate on creating music in the rhythm. I think we too often spend our time on the definition of the note values instead of learning to feel the rhythmic motion and how the rhythm creates the gesture of the phrases. (Another topic for a future post there!) I love being able to work on rhythm shaping without needing to do on staff reading.

Pre-reading encourages directional reading. This is huge for me. I have some parents who try to "help" with student reading by teaching them the mnemonic devices of Every Good Boy Does Fine or All Cows Eat Grass. These devices have their time and place, but it is much more important for students to learn to read by seeing the direction of the notes and not memorizing letters on the staff.
With pre-reading pieces we can work on phrase shaping, dynamics, explore articulations, all without needing to fully read music which would be more complicated if notated on lines and spaces. First year students can make beautiful music and if we focus on their musical expression right away from the beginning it is just another step to creating musically sensitive playing for their entire lives.

Now that you are hopefully considering using more pre-reading repertoire, I want to go over some of the materials I use. I actually often begin with student compositions. We can do this right away in the first lesson when we learn our finger numbers. We will make up some kind of words and put lines above the words. 
The student will then put either the number 2 or 3 on each line. The student can then play their composition on the black keys using their 2 and 3 fingers. We can do this type of activity with 2, 3 and 4 on three black keys or on three chosen white keys. This does not include the directional reading aspect, but it is really helpful for a student who is needing work on finger numbers. We can also fill in a composition using letter names. I find these student compositions especially helpful with some students who are just a bit slower at assimilating concepts. Since we make up new words for each composition even if we do not change the parameters (2 and 3 or CDE of FGAB or whatever) we have an endless supply of pre-reading pieces. As you can tell with my example, I do not always have our words rhyme. It is ok to not rhyme. Especially when we have students making up their own pieces we need to let them have freedom to create something which speaks to them. Eventually you could add that parameter in if you have the student creating parallel phrases or contrasting phrases. Yes, you could be teaching these concepts before reading on the staff!

Moving on to repertoire composed by pedagogical composers. Many modern method books will start with pre-reading pieces. Rarely will I teach a method which begins with on the staff (usually only with a student who has learned reading concepts already with another instrument). Even with adults I will use a method which begins with pre-reading. I am not going to survey methods here, I just want to explore supplemental materials.

On of the first volumes I use is Ready, Set, Play! Halloween Songs . Usually students have started lessons in September so doing Halloween pieces soon after that follows the calendar. (If by some chance the student starts in January, it does not work as well.) There is one piece which only uses C, D and E, one piece only uses two black keys, one uses only F,G,A,B, others use white keys based around C, others are in C Position. Two of the pieces have students playing hands together. It has become one of the books all my beginning students use. One of my favorite pieces is "Ghosties" by Timothy Brown. I just love this ending! What a way to get a beginning student to start to listen to dissonance and resolution.

Soon after Halloween I start Christmas music. I do not necessarily like doing Christmas music early in November, but I have learned that if we actually want to play the pieces fluently and be able to play a lot of Christmas carols well, we need to start them in November. My two favorite volumes are Christmas Carol Activity Book   and My First Christmas Carols both by Gayle Kowalchyk. I like these because they are not too busy with too many pictures and both have the complete carols included instead of just one phrase (often the case in the Bastien Piano Party books and the Music for Little Mozarts books). Unfortunately, the pieces are usually in Middle C position making singing along difficult when it drops below Middle C. Eighth notes and dotted quarter notes are used, but I find that Christmas carols are a wonderful way to introduce these note values since we can usually play the rhythm by ear and then see what notation matches.

For more pieces with which students might be familiar, I use two volumes by Mary Leaf called Kids Klassics. Volume 1 has Yankee Doodle and Mary Had a Little Lamb as well as other nursery rhymes my students have sometimes not heard such as Sing a Song of Sixpence or Hey, Diddle, Diddle. Volume 2 includes Old MacDonald Had a Farm as well as many others. Both volumes use arrangements using both the black and white keys. The more difficult arrangements get their difficulty because fingers might need to spread over more than just three or two black keys. For example, this is the hand position for The Farmer in the Dell. This can be tricky for some students.

Moving on to pieces not specific for a holiday or having familiar tunes - I would suggest anytime you see a pre-reading piece composed by Mary Leaf that you buy it. She has a gift for creating pre-reading pieces which sound sophisticated enough for adults to enjoy playing and that you will not grow tired of teaching. I will tell you about a few of my favorite volumes. (Here is a link to all her works which are in the FJH catalog Mary Leaf piano music.) With all her pieces, make sure to use the teacher duets, they are very satisfying to play and help students hear the beautiful colors she creates with her harmonies.

Echoes of Scotland has two pieces, the first, The Highlands of Scotland, is a beautiful example of a pentatonic melody on the black keys. This piece can be used as a chamber music exercise with students. The first and third phrases are exactly the same in the student part, but the phrases are harmonized differently in the teacher duet part. I love having the student listen and respond to the difference by playing with different dynamics. Sometimes we might not be able to do this with our fingers, but at least we try. The second, Pipes and Drums, is a lively tune in a minor with the drones in the teacher duet. The last line is tricky, but is a great way to have students practice using arm dropping into the keys. I love using this piece to work on feeling one beat per measure. Yes, you can do that with beginning students!

Two other volumes I use a lot, especially with beginning adults are A Day in the Country and A Day in the Mountains (I am partial to the second only for vacationing reasons.) Both volumes have pieces describing animals and experiences one might have in the respective locations. These pieces have such variety in characters and sound colors I love playing the duets over and over with students. Here is one of my favorites, Evening Shadows, from A Day in the Country. This is the last line, a beautiful ending. It is somewhat simple, but requires the performer to really listen to how they are getting slower and softer.

Another volume with a lot of variety is Piano Recital Showcase. Most of these are slightly easier than the Mary Leaf solos since they use easier hand positions like left hand on two black keys, right hand on three black keys. Some of these pieces are longer (three pages!) which for some young students can be intimidating even though they use a lot of patterns. One of my favorites is "Bumper Cars" by Jennifer Linn because of the note clusters to sound like horns honking. Also kudos to Jennifer Linn for using the word "glutinous" in "The Hungry Spider". Great word!! "Pickled Pepper Polka" by Carol Klose can be tricky since the performer gets to clap and find their hand position again quickly.

Black Key Blast by Wendy Stevens has a couple pieces on the Federation Pre-Primary list, but all the pieces are worth checking out. As the title suggests, all the pieces are on black keys. I find the rhythm to be really fun in this volume. In "Ninja Power" there is a bit of syncopation, but the words nicely line up to help the student feel the energy. "Click Clock Click" is great for getting the performer to keep the flow of the quarter notes constantly moving.

The Little Butterfly Garden by Timothy Brown has six of the eleven pieces written in pre-reading notation. As with the Mary Leaf solos, make sure to play the teacher duets, these pieces are great without them but fantastic when with the duets. The duet parts really help make the characters come even more alive. I appreciate how the composer has lyrics to help the student create the sound images. For example, in "Fanfare to Butterflies" the lyrics "Come greet the butterflies" is forte and then the exact same notes are used for the third phrase but the lyrics are "Quietly watch them" and to be played piano.

I know there are more volumes out there and thankfully, more composers are creating works in this type of notation for our students. I will keep updating the list as I find more pieces, so feel free to come back and check for more pieces as I find them.

Scale routines as our alphabet

There are probably as many ways to teach scales as there are piano teachers, with each of us having our own routines, chord progression, practicing tricks, mnemonics, etc. Whatever the method of teaching scales, I think it is crucial to make sure we have a very clear intent on what we are teaching because scales encompass many concepts both technical and theoretical.

I like to think of the major and minor scales being our language's alphabet. When we teach children and adults the language of English, we start with letters, then put them together to make words and sentences. Fluency is achieved when one can read, speak and understand paragraphs. English teachers will incorporate instruction of the sounds, the parts of speech and the definitions from the beginning lessons. I think we need to do the same for music. For all instruments. From my observations, we tend to be really good at teaching the pieces, but not as good at teaching how the pieces are put together. I think part of the reason we are not as good at studying how the music is put together is because we don't study our scales like they are the alphabet of music.

So, that is my intent when teaching scales to my students. Teaching the scales in a way which focuses on using them as a theoretical basis for Western harmony rather than solely as a finger exercise. In general my focus first is the CONCEPT, second is FINGERING, third is FLUENCY, fourth is VELOCITY. Here is my outline of how I do it.

Within the first months of lessons (exactly when depends on the student), I begin with five finger scales. We start with C Major and c minor and continue around the Circle of Fifths (C, then G, then D, etc.) doing both the major and minor of each key in a week. We do the scale with both left and right hand but not hands simultaneously. The main concept we are trying to learn is the SOUND of major and the SOUND of minor. The difference in sound happens because there is only one key different, but it is such an amazing difference! I love it when we get to D major and minor and students assume that just like C and G the scale will be all white keys and they play it and discover the sound is minor. Because I am focusing on the SOUND as the most important concept, we do not drill the scales forever until hand position is perfect. Comfortable hand positioning takes time to develop, it will not happen in a few weeks. Neither will control of all five fingers happen immediately. But we have 12 scales (at least 12 weeks) to work on hand positioning.
Other concepts we might discuss based on the aptitude of student will be half steps and whole steps, the pattern of each new scale being five steps higher. I do not shy away from using the black keys and their names. When the keys start getting tricky I will draw pictures of the keys used in their notebook so they can use the picture as a guide to finding the hand position.

After the five finger scales I move on to 1 octave scales. Yes, this means my students will often be doing 1 octave scales with the thumb under, 3 over motion within the first year of piano study. (If the student is not physically ready, then I might end up doing the five finger scales over again, that time around with the focus being on finger agility.) This time our focus is on hearing/learning the complete 1 octave scale. This time around I do relative major and minor (only natural form at this time). We do one key each week, so one week C Major, the next week a minor, next week G Major, next week e minor. This is assuming that practicing is going well enough that we can play the scale comfortably after one week of practicing. The concepts on which I like to focus are:
1. Every scale uses every letter of the musical alphabet
2. We add sharps and take away flats as we go around the Circle of Fifths
3. Major and minors are relative to each other.

I do not do a huge discussion of fingering patterns, but for the most part I have not had a problem with students playing the scales. We do not play them quickly and we definitely do not play both hands at the same time. As we practice the scales together, I will point to the finger numbers I have written in their notebook since students still at this point have some trouble tracking letters and numbers on the page. I prefer to not use a scale book or notation on lines and spaces for this. (Remember my intent is to know the letters of the scales.) I will write the letters of the scale in one line of the notebook, above the letters I put the right hand finger numbers, below I put the left hand finger numbers. This way we are not actually needing to be reading lines and spaces to do the scales. I like students to sing the finger numbers as they play to help get the sound of the scales internalized.

If we have any additional concepts, these would be the whole and half step patterns and the order of sharps and flats. But, I do not focus on those unless the student is showing an above average theoretical aptitude.

If I feel the student has a general grasp of the 1 octave scales when we have gone around the whole Circle of Fifths, we will then start 2 octave scales, still only one hand at a time. I add two concepts this time and reinforce the concepts from the 1 octave scales. The first new concept is harmonic minor, the second is hand over hand arpeggios of the tonic chord. We do both natural and harmonic minor scales when doing minor so in the students' minds they have two scales to practice on the minor weeks (horrors!). For the hand over hand arpeggios we do four octaves plus the root again on the top. For example, for C Major we would do left hand CEG, the right hand CEG in the next higher octave, left hand crosses over to the next higher octave to do CEG, right hand moves to the next higher octave to do CEG, left hand crosses over to do the next C. We do it backwards for descending - GEC. The arpeggio introduces them to the tonic chord and really forces them to think about the letters of the chord.

By the time we have finished going around the Circle of Fifths again the fingerings are getting much more solid. But, I still do not think it is enough to put hands together yet. This time around we do 1, 2 and 3 octave scales. For minor, 1 octave is the natural minor, 2 octaves is harmonic minor and 3 octaves is melodic minor. Also new is the tonic arpeggio with arpeggio fingerings (so not hand over hand). We are reinforcing and reviewing all the previous concepts. New concepts are the melodic minor and by now I definitely am wanting students to be able to tell me the order of sharps and order of flats. They should also be understanding the third relationship between relative major and minor. What I feel is the most important concept at this point is that I have them practicing the tonic and dominant chords of each key. In root position. By the end of this time around the Circle they should easily be able to spell these out on their own because we have learned the concept, not just memorized chords. Tonic is always on the first note of the scale, we always skip a letter to build our thirds. Dominant is always on the fifth note of the scale.

I think it is really important to learn to spell these chords in root position. I had the experience once of teaching a college piano class for music majors who had been trained to play some fairly complex cadences on the piano. I was impressed until I started asking the to spell me chords. For example, the vi of D Major. The same students struggled to spell what I would consider to be a simple chord spelling for a music major. When my intent is to acquire theoretical fluency, I want my students to be able to spell chords for me and know their function within the key rather than rote play a cadential pattern.

One note about all these scale routines. These are my guidelines, but I do need to often modify because a student needs more work on a concept or simply because they struggle with (or refuse to) practice. For example, we might need to do another round of 2 octave scales or maybe go up to the 3 octave scales and not do the arpeggio yet. Whatever is going to help the student learn the material eventually. Not doing scales is not an option for my students since this is a huge part of how I teach music theory.

By this time around the Circle, fingerings are starting to be fluent (although c-sharp and f-sharp melodic minors might need some prompting). But, I still like to stick with only hands separate scales. This time we do 1 octave scales in quarter notes (natural minor), 2 octaves in eighths (harmonic minor), 3 octaves in triplets (melodic minor). We also do the 1, 2 and 3 octaves in different note values for the tonic arpeggios. Our new concept is spelling and playing in root position I-iii-vi-IV-V-I in every key. By root position I mean that we will play each chord in root position. This means the student will need to pick up their hand for each chord resulting in no smooth transitions. My intent is fluency of spelling chords. We also will be working on key signatures at this time.

One "key" (pun intended) point about key signatures. I think we often teach them backwards. As in we look at the key signature of a piece first and then say the piece should be in this key. For example, we see two sharps so we say that the piece must be in D Major or in b minor. I think we instead need to look at the music first, identify the MUSIC as having the attributes of the key. For example, b minor would have b minor chords, cadences on b, F sharp Major chords, etc. Then we recognize the key signature as a RESULT of the music. I might be splitting hairs here, but I think we need to recognize key signatures as a DEscription of the music rather than a PREscription.

Now, if you remember way back at the top of the page my four tenets of concept, fingering, fluency, velocity, I think by now my student has gone through all the concepts of basic major/minor harmony. We have encountered all the fingerings, fluency is coming along simply because of repetition. Time to work towards velocity. I like to do another time around the Circle, still doing hands separately to get some speed. This time we do 4 octave scales in sixteenth notes instead of 3 octaves in triplets.

Big question, why do I wait so long to do hands together scales? Reason 1: if hands separate is not fluent, putting hands together is very time consuming and frustrating. Reason 2: I don't see hands together scales as incredibly practical. We practice scales for theoretical knowledge and for finger preparation of pieces. How many pieces in the repertoire actually use hands together scales? Two come to my mind immediately - Beethoven 3rd Concerto and Chopin g minor Ballade. There are probably more, but my point is that if we are doing scales to prepare  for pieces, there are very few pieces actually using hands together scales. I think I have some time to prepare students before they will actually be ready to play those pieces. We can push off the frustration of doing hands together scales for a while. Interesting observation I have made though, when I wait this many times around the Circle before doing hands together, it actually hasn't been frustrating. I usually just suggest, hey maybe try hands together now and they can do it because they have done so much hands separate work. We might need to do some blocking work on a few scales to tighten up fingerings, but overall it is a much simpler task than if I try to do hands together earlier in their piano study.

One concept I have not focused on is the whole and half step patterns of the scales. Yes, I think this is important, but since my focus is on seeing key relationships and a thorough understanding of the Circle of Fifths, I don't spend an excessive amount of time on memorizing whole and half step patterns. I actually usually discuss these patterns with students when we analyze and play pieces using modal scales.

Usually the routines in this list will take us through four maybe five years of piano study. This means they will have an understanding of key relationships as we move into repertoire which is solidly in the category of Intermediate repertoire. Which means we are actually able to do harmonic analysis of pieces and see modulations and identify the difference between an Exposition and Recapitulation of a Sonatina. It is so much fun to teach the pieces when the students have been prepared for analysis!

Now, I am not claiming that my students are perfect at theoretical analysis. That takes practice and lots of guidance. But at least I feel (and hope) they know the building blocks of the music.

Moving beyond these routines we work on fluency and velocity, which I feel should  eventually be a different blog post. My routines are always getting tweaked and adapted for each student, but hopefully this gives some ideas of how to use the scales for creating pianists who are strong music theorists. I love using the scales right at the beginning of the lesson so we right away get our brains engaged in our music making.

Pieces to prepare for the Bach Inventions

The Bach Inventions. One of the steps on the way to what many pianists call the Old Testament of piano repertoire - Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues. Most music schools require auditioning students to prepare one of the 48, to help prepare for this all scholarship students at my teaching institution are required to learn the Bach Inventions. So, both the Inventions and the 48 are a big deal. And they should be. They are incredible pieces and should be in every pianists' repertoire. Which means that we as teachers need to be thinking about how we are going to help our students play them. Which means we need a plan for how to introduce these pieces so students learn to love them and play them musically and intelligently.

First of all, I want to discuss what is so wonderful about the inventions, which also happens to be what makes them need our effort in preparing for these pieces. What are the characteristics of the Inventions?

Counterpoint. Two moving lines independent of each other. Which means we will have a left hand line and a right hand line, each with equal importance and difficulty. Functional harmony can still be present, but will follow the rules of composition specific to counterpoint (not going to go into those rules here).

Baroque articulations. Depending on the invention, we can experiment with a few hundred ways to depress and release the keys.

Affect, yet not monochromatic. Each Baroque piece is supposed to portray one emotion or idea (affect), but within that framework Baroque music should be very colorful. I teach students to use a lot of dynamic contrast in their performances. We use the harmonic outlines to help decide on the location of the climax of the piece and moments of intensity and release.

I am sure we could have a much larger list of characteristics, but I am choosing to focus on these three. From these characteristics, I can create my list of what I need to teach my students to help them eventually achieve a readiness for the Inventions.

1. Have a finger agility in both hands to manipulate hand shifts and sophisticated fingerings
2. Be able to listen to two musical lines at the same time
3. Be able to sing one line while playing another (maybe this won't happen BEFORE encountering the inventions, but we will always work on it!)
4. Awareness of cadences
5. Ability to breathe at ends of phrases
6. Be able to use a variety of touches and hear the differences
7. Be able to play different dynamics in each hand (one hand quiet, the other louder, crescendo only in one hand, etc.)
8. Hear how different harmonies have a different "color"

Now I know what I need to teach, time to go find some music!!! THE best part!

I like to think about what I need from the very beginning. As in at the first lesson. I don't like to teach with the mindset that my student might not ever play the Inventions. Because they deserve the kind of teaching from the very beginning which will prepare them to play this repertoire. This means I need to choose a method book which will prepare them from the first day of piano study. I will get into more discussion of method books at another time, that is a HUGE topic. To summarize for now, I want a method which will train both hands equally and aid my student to hear and shape phrases beautifully. This means I will avoid methods which have pieces which have the melody dominantly in the right hand. I will make sure the method has pieces which gives attention to left hand work and does not relegate the left hand to only playing chords and chordal accompaniments. If by some chance I am stuck using a method which does that, I need to supplement the method a LOT to make sure the left hand trains to be an equal partner. I don't have an absolute favorite method. I think they all have strengths and weaknesses. But, I have a few I like better - Faber Piano Adventures, Music Tree, Hal Leonard, Marlais' Succeeding at the Piano. I can usually feel pretty comfortable with being able to manipulate those to get what I want for my students.

In addition to choosing a method which will work for both hands, I like to start scale work early with students. (Also going to be an upcoming post.) I like to start work on the five finger scales within about the first month of lessons. We gradually learn both the major and minor scale patterns and work our way into one octave scales by about the end of the first year of piano lessons (timing of this depends on the individual student's development). I delay doing hands together scales so we can work on independent hand agility which will better prepare us for sophisticated fingerings which are necessary in the Inventions.

Ok. My student has been now working in a method (plus getting supplemental work) which has created hands which are relatively similar in strength and agility and has some scale work. Now I need some pieces which work on getting hands to play together but not doing the same thing. There are some great pieces listed in the Royal Conservatory Music Development Program in the Inventions required for Levels 1 and 2. I often use this list as a guide, especially when it lists a whole collection. Except I just go buy the whole collection instead of sticking to their list. Here are some specific pieces I think work really well beyond the RCM list.

Please note, these pieces do not necessarily sound like Bach, that is not the intention. The intent is to prepare physically and mentally.  I put these pieces in what I think is the order of difficulty, feel free to disagree. The list is by no means exhaustive, I will add and amend the list as I discover more pieces. If nothing else, check out some of the pieces so you can get an idea of what kinds of pieces we should be looking for in preparation.

"Imitation" from Alex Rowley's Happenings
Both hands are in G Major positions, each hand plays the motive ascending, then descending, then an ascending chord outline followed descending chord outline. I would suggest sometimes swapping the dynamics sometimes so both hands get to play forte as well as piano.

"Twin Sisters" from Stephen Chatman's Preludes for Piano Book 1.
This piece has left hand in a D Major position and right hand in A Major. The descending "motive" is only 4 notes in length, each hand plays it twice, then finishes with hands together in parallel motion. No hand shifts.

"Fill in the Blanks" from Stephen Chatman's Away
This piece is more difficult than the previous because it does include a lot of two note slurs. One thing I love is that students need to decide some of the notes. Chatman has marked an X in a number of places, students are instructed to "play or write a quarter-note pitch below of above each X". What a great way to eventually lead to ornamentation and improvisation! Both hands stay in a G position, sometimes with a c sharp. No hand shifts.

"Bicycle Ride" from Jon George's Kaleidoscope Solos Book 2
The left hand is not as dominant as the right in this piece, but it does require independent playing in each hand. No hand shifts, left hand is in G position, right hand in D. 6/8 meter.

"Langweilige Geschichte" from Jeno Takacs Fur Mich, op. 7 
This is starting to get to be more difficult simply because both hands are playing simultaneously through much more of the piece. At the mid point each hand shifts. First half of the piece both hands are an a G position and then switch to D. Uses Lydian mode (Major with raised fourth).

"Lighting the lamps" from Rory Boyle's In Times Past
This piece has some accidentals which could be tricky, but does stay in the same hand position. Left and right hands alternate playing a motive and then finish with contrary motion together.

"Mary Had a Little Lamb" from Dianne Goolkasian Rahbee Modern Miniatures
I would change the left hand fingerings so that the first E is played with a 3 finger rather than 2 finger. This would then have both hands starting in a C position and switching half way to an F position. I have this piece as more difficult than the previous simply because of the dotted quarter and eighth rhythm. The last measure requires a fun cluster in the right hand.

"Relay Race" from Jon George's Kaleidoscope Solos Book 2
This piece does not have much hands together playing, when hands are together for four measures it is more chordal than counterpoint. But, this is a great piece for my purposes because the melodic motive passes from one hand to the other while doing hand shifts. Another 6/8 meter piece.

"Mimicking" from Family Matters by Al Benner
This piece is mostly hand alternation, but the first and last section end with hands together in contrary motion. Beginning section is all in C Position. Second section shifts three times with each hand before returning back to C. Third section (m. 25) shifts back to C then four more shifts. I do really like how the composer calls for articulation changes, but for the most part is very symetrical - whatever the right hand does, the left hand does as well. Rhythmically very accessible since it mainly uses eighth notes.

Teresa Richert's Copycat Copycat
Some of these pieces are easier than previous pieces on the list. The composer has created these pieces with the intent of using these to help her students prepare for the inventions and they do that perfectly. All the pieces require hand shifts, some slightly more complicated. I really appreciate the variety of meters and the usage of both major and minor keys. Teresa lists "features of the pieces" at the end of the book. Many of the pieces introduce Baroque ornaments such as the mordent and turn.

Keith Snell's Prelude and Gigue
The Prelude of this set is reminiscent of Bach's B-flat Major Prelude from WTC 1 with a left hand line under right hand 6ths. The Gigue is really the piece which helps prepare for the Inventions, though. It is in ABA form. A section is in G Major with right hand stating the gigue motive, then the left followed by the hands playing in compound thirds or sixths. The B section is the same except in e minor.

"Penny-farthing" from Rory Boyle's In Times Past
This piece has some more sophisticated fingering - finger crossings and extension out of a five finger position.

 Pierre Gallant's Imitations and Inventions
This is another collection, but it covers a wider difficulty level than Copycat Copycat. A few of the pieces have no hand shifts, but more difficult pieces are much more sophisticated requiring finger crossover, shifts, hand extensions. I appreciate the variety of meters, key signatures and modes.

Alec Rowley's Five Miniature Preludes and Fugues
Definitely getting to be more sophisticated, requiring thoughtful fingerings and systematic practicing from students. I appreciate the inclusion of fugue terminology (maybe not in other editions, I have one from Petrucci Music Press), but I would rather be able to work with the student to find the subject and answer instead of already having them marked in the score. Keys explored are C and F major, d and a minor. With many of the movements I could see references to Bach pieces. For example Prelude 1 is similar to Bach C Major Prelude, Prelude 2 is similar to the 2nd movement of the Italian Concerto. This can lead to some fun listening assignments for students. The length of these pieces is perfect for their purpose - about 20 measures each for the prelude and fugue.

This collection is out of print, but it can still be found floating around in online bookstores. I would suggest getting a copy. Stan Applebaum's Folk Music Bach Style: 21 Two-Part Inventions based on International Folk Melodies.
Difficulty level varies (Jane Magrath lists as Level 2-3) depending on type of hand shifts, keys and trickiness of the the rhythm. I appreciate the different folk tune sounds, since being based on folk tunes makes the invention motives really singable. Many times the accompanying hand outlines harmonies giving opportunities for harmonic analysis.

"Invencao" from Miniatures for Piano by Helio Bacelar Viana. I once picked up this collection at a music store clearance rack and I have no idea how to get a copy of it, my apologies. The publisher is Brazilian Music Enterprises. The collection has 16 short pieces with a mildly Brazilian flavor which could be really fun to add to a student's repertoire. This invention uses some syncopation requiring the student to be really rhythmically aware of the strength of the downbeat in order to get the dance-like feel of the piece. The first eight measures I feel are the most difficult, tapping out the rhythm will help tremendously in learning the piece. Rarely do hands actually play keys together, but the alternation requires students to really know hand shifts well to have a successful performance.

Bourree in G Major by Mona Rejino is a wonderful example of a Baroque dance as well as an introduction to counterpoint. Rejino uses written out trills at the ends of sections to help students learn the sounds of Baroque ornaments without yet needing to see the notation. I feel she could have maybe left out some of the dynamic markings to help students learn to create their own dynamic changes in sequential passages, but I understand the pedagogical intent was to help students hear how a sequential passage should be shaped. 

"The Mirror" from Kirke Mechem's Whims
Even though hands mostly alternate in this piece, because it is Presto the difficulty of this piece is probably about a Level 5. Requires much more agility in moving around on the keyboard and manipulation of articulations and dynamics.

"Canone" from Casella's Children's Pieces Op. 35
Only slightly less difficult than the easier Bach Inventions. The entire piece is only played on the black keys, so a fun sound exploration!

Teresa Richert's Canine Inventions
Again, only slightly lest difficult than the Bach Inventions, but definitely a fun set to explore. Teresa has carefully planned the pieces to introduce students to articulations, rhythmic patterns and cadential patterns which students will need to know about for their study of Bach.

Two-Part Inventions by Abram Kaplan
Slightly less difficult than the Bach, but definitely offer something different for exploring the challenges of inventions. Not all the inventions are "true" inventions with both voices using the same motivoc material (#1, #5 for example). #3 is a fun dance in 11/8 and 7/8 which needs attention to articulations. #7 is a great example of opportunity to find motivic material. #10 uses alternating hands which is excellent for working on listening to motivic material move from one hand to another seamlessly. #11 has lots of dynamic changes, many of them suddenly. #12 is in 4/4 but the entire piece uses hemiola creating a really exciting finish to the set.

Dave Brubeck's Two Part Adventures
One thing I love about this set of pieces is that it has not been over edited. There are no fingerings given, so teachers and students have to work out fingerings together just as they ideally should with the Bach Inventions. There are also not a tremendous number of dynamic markings leaving lots of room for performer exploration of harmonies to guide the shaping. Not all of the pieces are truly counterpoint pieces. Many have left hand patterns which are often used in jazz styles - such as a walking bass line or arpeggiated chords. But, I think it is really important for students to realize that counterpoint is a huge part of many different styles of music, not just Baroque style. There are 24 pieces in the set, I will highlight only three. In fact
"Two-Part Contention" is one of the more imitative pieces in the set. This will take a lot of thought to work out fingerings and will require students to really listen for dissonant and consonant intervals to make shaping decisions. There is a lot of opportunity to analyze sequences and patterns and will really require the analysis to make sense of the direction of the piece.
"Brother, Can You Spare a Dime" is based on the song my Jay Gorney with the same title. I like the idea of having an example of the practice of audiences giving tunes for the performer to then use to create an invention or fugue. This pieces for the most part uses alternation from one hand to the other and then hands together motion in compound thirds. Lots of fund syncopations in this piece.
"Chasin' Yourself" as the name suggests has lots of alternation of a motive from one hand to the other. In fact, the only two places in the piece which do not alternate motives are measures 24-35 and the last two measures. The harmonic changes at each motivic repetition really allows for lots of creativity in the performer for dynamics.

15 Polyphonic Studies (15 Kleine tweestemmige polyphone oefeningen) by Gerard Hengeveld. As far as I know the volume is out of print (I found mine on Amazon) it was published by Broekmans and van Poppel in Amsterdam in 1964. A stamp on my book notes bit was distributed by CF Peters Corporation. Please do not give up on out of print pieces. Many companies are starting to do print on demand orders so it is a matter of contacting publishing companies to find out who has the rights to the pieces. Many of these can also be found in libraries. These are of equivalent difficulty to the Bach Inventions. They are worth looking at. Students can compare how different composers treated motivic material and used harmonies within a counterpoint style- this can help them compose their own inventions. In addition to simply theoretical value, I find many of these to be delightful to play, why not include them in our repertoire!

Radion Shchedrin's Polyphonic Notebook is more difficult than the Bach Inventions. But, it is definitely worth exploring because it is includes some really fun counterpoint studies.

Ideas: I am thinking of sometime doing an all invention recital or semester with my students. Yes, we would study other pieces as well, but I think with this list we could definitely find pieces for all levels of students to play. This could lead to students creating their own inventions. Even if the resulting pieces are not amazing, the exercise of composition really makes students think of how the parts work together and how much craftsmanship is involved in counterpoint composition.

Additional note: Many of the Inventions are dances. Which adds another layer of preparation. While preparing for hand independence and counterpoint we need to also be getting the feeling of Baroque dances into our students!! I guess that gives me another list of pieces to find - pieces to help explore Baroque dance. Follow my posts so that when I compile that list you can see it as soon as I hit the publish button!

Annotated Repertoire from "Pulling it All Together", a presentation for WMTA

Pieces to help teach phrase identification "The Highlands of Scotland" from  Echoes of Scotland  by Mary Leaf I like to use...